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B.A. FIRST YEAR NATIONALISM IN INDIA UNIT 4 CHAPTER - 7 SOCIAL MOVEMENTS : WOMEN, CASTE, PEASANT, TRIBAL AND WORKERS  NOTES

B.A. FIRST YEAR NATIONALISM IN INDIA UNIT 4 CHAPTER - 7 SOCIAL MOVEMENTS : WOMEN, CASTE, PEASANT, TRIBAL AND WORKERS NOTES


Women And The National Struggle

One Of The Important Facts Of India's Freedom Movement Was The 
Growing Participation Of Women. Women Played Crucial Role In The 
Economic Boycott Compaigns And Often Participated In The Non 
Cooperation Movement With As Much Or Even Greater Then Their 
Husbands For Male Relatives. Women Attendant In Large Numbers 
Orphan With Little Children In Tow.
In The Group Led By Surya Sen They Acted As Messengers And 
Custodians Of Arms And Fought Or Gans In Hand When They Need.
In December 1931 Two School Girls Of Comilla, Shanti Ghosh And 
Suniti Chaudhary Shoot The District Magistrate 
In February 1932 Bina Das Fired Point Blank At The Governor While 
Receiving Her Degree At The Convocation.
When The Entire Congress Leadership Was Put In Jail In 
1942 Women's Leaders Like Aruna Asaf Ali And Sucheta 
Kriplani Emerged With Achyut Patwardhan And Ram 
Manohar Lohiya And Others To Lead The Underground Resistance.
Usha Mehta Ran The Congress Radio.
The Journey Of Women's Liberation Thought Can Be Said To 
Have Started With Raja Ram Mohan Roy Who In Bengal 
Demanded That Womens Not Regarded As Weak. 
After That Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Devendra Nath 
Tagore, Supported The Views Of Ram Mohan.
In Uttar Pradesh Huzur Maharaj Rai Salig Ram Worked For The 
Removal Of Illiteracy Among The Women.
In The South In Madras The Social Reformer Virsalingam Work For 
Advancement Of Women Through The Education And Marriage Reforms.
Swami Dayanand Saraswati Also Advocated Female Education Widow Remarriage.

The Movements Of Depressed Castes

Another Major Population Subgroup That Saw Major 
Movement Were The Depressed Classes Also Known 
As The Backward Castes Or Dalits.
Jyotirao Phule, Periyar And Ambedkar Emerged As 
Amongst The Most Prominent Of The Dalit Leaders.
Dalit And Backward Caste Ideologies Launched A Full Fledged 
Attack Against The Caste System And The Brahmanism 
Maintaining And Pushing Forward The Movements First 
Launched By Mahatma Phule Fine Tuned By Periyar In South 
And Finally Polished By Ambedkar.
Gandhi Realised That For The Cause Of Forging Our National Identity 
And National Street The Leadership Will Have To Eliminate Or Dilute 
Social Divisions. And One Of The Worst Division Unique To India Was 
The Caste Divide And Untouchability As Its Ugliest Manifestation.
Gandhi Also Choose The Reformist Approach To Unite India 
Particularly Hindus For The Struggle Against The British.

The contribution of peasant movements

The Indian peasantry it may be argued rose for the first 
time in protest during the 1857 revolt, tired and 
exhausted with the revenue taxes imposed by 
the British which was breaking their back.
The Farmer In India Rose Against Two Kinds Of Exploitation One 
From The Jamidar And Jagirdars And The British.
The Kisan Sabha Movement Started In Bihar Under The 
Leadership Of Swami Sahajanand Saraswati Who Had Formed In 
1929 The Bihar Provincial Kisan Sabha (BKPS) In Order To Mobilise 
Presents Against The Exploitation Of Jamidar On Filmsy.
Gandhi Had Led To Very Successful Revolts One Against The Taxation And 
Allied Landlords In Champaran Bihar And Another In Kheda Gujarat.
In 1920 The Indian National Congress Under Gandhi Is Leadership Launched 
The Non Cooperation Movement And Their Was Peasant Participation.
The Bardoli Satyagraha Of 1925 In The State Of Gujarat Was Almost Entirely 
A Peasant Uprising. The Peasants Of Bardoli In Gujarat Suffered From Floods 
And Famine Which Hurts The Crops Produce.

The Movements Of Tribals

Another Populations Of Group That Revoltedand Carried On Moments 
During The British Era Contributing To The National Struggle Were Tribals.
British Rule And Its Accompanying Commercialization Strengthood Already 
Present Tendencies Towards Preparation Of Tribals Area By Outsider From 
The Plains Money Lenders Traders Land Grabbers And Contractors Hated By The Tribals.
There Were Various Revolts Under The Different 
Inspiration From Time To Time 
In 1868 The Naikda Forest Tribe Attacked Police 
Station In a Bid To Established Dharm-raj. 
In 1882 Tha Kacha Nagas Of Cachar Attack The Whites.

Workers and labour movement

The Low Wages And An Imaginable Living Condition Of 
The Workers Enabled The Capitalists Whether British 
Or Foreign To Pile Up Huge Profits. Britishers And The 
Capitalist Exploits All The Workers And Labours. It Was 
A Inevitable That People Living In Such Conditions 
Would Rise And Revolt.
Socialism And Trade Union Have Brought The Power Of 
Combination And The First Vision Of A Goal Which Can end 
Their Misery. After That Many Moments And Meeting Held 
In The Favour Of Workers And Labours And They 
Demand For Limitation Of Hours Of Work, A Weekly Rest 
Day, In On Time Recess And Compensation For Injuries.

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