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B.A. FIRST YEAR NATIONALISM IN INDIA UNIT 2 CHAPTER- 2 REFORMISM AND ANTI REFORMISM IN THE 19TH CENTURY NOTES

B.A. FIRST YEAR NATIONALISM IN INDIA UNIT 2 CHAPTER- 2 REFORMISM AND ANTI REFORMISM IN THE 19TH CENTURY NOTES


During The 19th Century, There Were Social And 
Religious Evils In Indian Society Such As Caste System, Child 
Marriage, Sati Pratha, Untouchability, It Was Very Important To 
Remove Them From Society. In The 19th Century, India Was Moving In The Field Of Art, Knowledge, 
Science, Philosophical, Religious Etc.Along With This, New Thinking Was Also Being Born In India.

There were two kinds of reform movements in the 19th century in India 

  • REFORMISM 
  • ANTI - REFORMISM

The Reformism Group Wanted To Inculcate the Liberal Ideas 
And Education To Reform The Society. On The Other Hand 
The ANTI – REFORMERS For Major Focus On The Golden Period Of 
India And Efforts To Bring Back The Past Glory. The Colonial Rule 
Reflected That Many Of The Indian Social Practice And 
Institutions Had Become Obsolete And They Needed Reforms.

BRAHMO SAMAJ

Raja Ram Mohan Roy Was Born In 1772 In Radha Nagar A 
Small Village In Bengal. Young Man He Had Studied Sanskrit 
Literature And Hindu Philosophy In Varanasi And Persian, 
Arabic And Koran In Patna. He Was Well Known Of Several 
Languages Including English, Latin, Greek.
To carry out social and religious reforms Raja Ram Mohan Roy 
founded a new religious society in 1828 which came to be known 
as brahmo samaj this was the first organisation of religious reforms 
it was based on rationalism and believed in the philosophy of Vedas. 
The Brahmo Samaj Discarded Meaningless Rites And 
Rituals. It Opposed Sati Pratha And Got It 
Denounced. Raja Ram Mohan Rai Was The First 
Person Who Spread The National Consciousness In 
India And Advocated For Equality And Dignified Life
Rammohan Rai Fought Relentlessly Against Social Evils 
Sati Pratha, Child Marriage, Female Infanticide And Caste 
Discrimination Organised A Movement Against The In 
Human Custom Of Sati And Held William Bentinck To Pass 
A Low Banning The Practice 1829. It Was A Successful 
Social Movement Against And Age-old Social Evil

Devendra Nath Tagore 

The Father Of Rabindranath Tagore 
Was Responsible For Revitalizing The Brahmo Samaj Under 
Him The First Setup Was Taken To Convert The Brahmo Samaj 
Into A Separate Religious And Social Community In 1839 He 
Founded The Tatvabodhini Sabha To Propagate Ram Mohan 
Roy's Ideas.

THE PRATHANA SAMAJ

in 1867 the prathana samaj was started in Maharashtra to reform 
Hinduism and preach the worship of one God.
Mahadev Govind Ranade and R.G. Bhandarkar were the two great 
leaders of the samaj the prathana samaj did in Maharashtra what 
did the brahmo samaj didn't Bengal.
It Attacked The Caste System And The Predominance Of The 
Brahmins, Campaingning Against Child Marriage and Widow 
Marriage Female Education Etc. Ranade Started The Widow 
Remarriage Association And The Deccan Education Society. Ranade 
Was Also One Of The Founders Of The Indian National Congress.

Young Bengal Movement

This Movement Was Started By Henry Louis Vivian Derozio In Calcutta 
In The 1820 He Was An Anglo Indian College Teacher In Calcutta And 
He Encourage Radical Thinking Among His Students He Criticized The 
Prevailing Religious Practices Of The Orthodox Hinduism He Also 
Inspired Free Thinking And Propagated The Spirit Of Liberty Equality And Freedom.
The Establishment Of Hindu College In 1870 Was A 
Major Event In The History Of Bengal. It Played An 
Important Role In Carrying Forward The Reformist 
Movement Henry Was A Teacher Of Hindu College He 
Was Born In 1809 He Was Of Mixed Parentage His 
Father Was Purtgali And His Mother Was Indian. 
At The Age Of 17 He Joined The Hindu College As A 
Teacher And Taught There Till 1831. He Was Deeply 
Influenced By The Revolutionary Ideas Of Liberty 
Equality And Fraternity. He Was Removed From The 
Hindu College Because Of His Radicalism And Dead 
Soon After At The Age Of 22.

Satyashodhak samaj

This Society Was Founded By Jyotirao Govindrao Phule On 24 September 
1873 In Maharashtra. It Compaigned Against Identity And The 
Caste System. Jyotirao Phule Is Said To Have Used The Term Dalit For The 
Oppressed Caste. People From All Caste Is And Religions Were Allowed To 
Join This Association Opposed To The Domination Of The Brahmins And 
Started The Practice Of Conducting Marriage Without Brahmin Priests.

Keshav Chandra Sen

keshav Chandra Sen Carried An 
Intensive Program Of Social Reformer He Propagated 
widow Marriages In 1872 The Government Passed 
The Native (Civil )Marriage Act Legalising Marriage Is 
Performed According To Brahmo Samaj Rites.

DADOBA PANDURANG He founded Paramhansa Sabha in 
1840 was the first reform organisation of 19th century in Maharashtra.

K SRIDHARALU NAIDU HE founded Veda samaj in Madras 
under the guidance of keshav Chandra Sen in 1864.

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Anti-Reformist

These Movement Started Reviving Ancient Indian Traditions 
And Thoughts And Believed That The Western Thinking And 
Indian Culture And Ethos During The 1870 In Bengal And 
1890 In Maharashtra. Anti Reformism Begin To Replace The 
Popularity Of Brahmo Samaj And Prarthana Samaj. 
The Leadership Of The Orthodox Section Of The Hindu Middle Class Led 
By Radhakanto Deb Of Sova Bazar 
Who Had Founded The Dharma Sabha In 
Opposition To Ram Mohan Roy's Brahmo Samaj In 
1830 But This Moment Could Not Spread.

ARYA SAMAJ

Another Organisation In Northern India Which Aim To Strengthen 
Hinduism Through Reform Was The Arya Samaj. Arya Samaj Founded By 
Swami Dayanand Saraswati In 1875 In Bombay This Society Strove 
Against Idolatry Polytheism Rituals Priesthood Animal Sacrifice Child 
Marriage And The Caste System
It Is Also Encourages The Western Scientific Knowledge. 
Dayanand Saraswati Was Born In A Brahmin Family 
In Kathiawar. Gujarat In 1824. He opposed idol worship and said return to the Vedas
He told that child marriage caste system, untouchability, 
atrocities on women, etc. have no place in Vedas

Theosophical Society

Though Annie Besant's Name Is Most Associated With This 
Society. But It Was Founded By Madam Blavatsky And Colonel 
Olcott New York In 1875. It Promote The Study Of Ancient Hindu 
Buddhist And Zoroastrian Philosophies. It Promote The Concept 
Of Universal Brotherhood As Expounded In The Upanishads And Vedas.
In 1886 They Founded The Theosophical Society At Adyar Near Madras 
Annie Besant And Irish Women Who Came To India In 1893 
Helped The Theosophical Movement To Gain Strength She 
Propagated Vedic Philosophy And Urged Indians To Take Pride In Their Culture.

Ramakrishna Mission

In 1892 On The Bank Of Hooghly River Swami Vivekanand  
Established The Ramakrishna Mission Bengal Being The Prime 
Karma Bhumi Of Ramakrishnan Belur Seemed The Best Place 
To Spread The Teaching Of His Guru. 
Ramakrishna Mission Focused On The Universality Of 
Spiritual Phenomenon's And Opposed The Ideas Which 
Fell Out Of The Vedantic Understanding Of The Religion And Society. 
They Saw God In Every Creature Of The Nature And 
Which Consequently Led Dam To Oppose The Practices Like Caste System .

Swami Vivekananda

Was Born In January 1863 In 
Calcutta His Birth Name Was Narendranath Dutta 
his Formal Education From Scottish Church 
College From The Beginning He Had Deep Interest 
In Philosophy Which Lead Into Extensive Study Of 
Western And Indian Philosophical Thought. 
An Early Age He Was Interested In The Mysterious Of 
Spiritual World After Meeting Swami Ramakrishnan He Got 
And Engrossed In Ramakrishnan Profound Understanding Of 
The Subject And Experiential Method. Vivekanand Focused On The 
Universality Of The Various Religions And Spiritual Parts And Focused On 
The Service Of Mankind For Him Equality And Love For Each Other Were The Most Important Virtues

Movements Among The Muslims

Movement For Socio Religious Reforms Among The 
Muslim Emerge Late. Most Muslim Feared The Western 
Education Would Endanger Their Religion As It Was Un Islamic.

SHAH WALLIULLAH

He started the wahabi movement it was an anti reformist moment with us login to return to pure Islam.

HAJI SHARIAT ULLAH

He founded an orthodox Islamic movement I.e. farazi movement. 
He called for a return to fariyad like namaj,Haj,fasting in Ramzan etc.

Aligarh Movement

Aligarh Movement Is The Most Significant Moment When It Comes To 
Muslim Community This Moment Was Organised By The Great Muslim 
Reformer Syed Ahmed Khan Advocate English Medium Education For 
Muslim. His Biggest Work Was Establishment Of Mohammedan Orient 
College Which Later Came To Be Known As Aligarh Muslim University It Was 
A Modern Institution To Impact Modern Ideas To The Students

Characteristics of the reform and anti reforms moments

  • All The Reformers Propagated The Idea Of One God And The Basic Unity Of All Religions Thus They Tried To Write The Gap 
    Between Different Religious Beliefs.
  • All The Reformers Attacked Priesthood ,Rituals, Idolatry, Polytheism ,Caste System And Child Marriage. 
  • The Reformers Attempt To Improve The Status Of Girls And Women In Society They All Emphasized The Need Of Female Education.
  • By Attacking The Caste System And Untouchability The Reformers Help To Unify The People Of India Into One Nation. 
  • The Reform And Anti Reformers Moments Fostered Feelings Of Self Respect Self Reliance Among The Indians.

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