Listening, Speaking, Reading And Writing Are The Four Main Skills To  
Become A Master In A Language .Those Good At Reading Become 
Good Listeners Speakers And Writers
The Fact Is That No One Skill Is Learned Alone Most Of The Times It Is 
A Combination And Integration Of Skills.
Before We Reading Three Things Should Be Known 

  • Why Do We Read
  • How Do We Read
  • What Is The Purpose Of Rating

Reading is for pleasure ,examination ,general information, 
specific knowledge, problem solving ,draw logic etc

Reading Techniques And Skills


Is A Reading With A Specific Purpose In Mind For Specific Information 
When One Reads An Entire Text Or Documents Quickly While 
Looking For Specific Information It Is Called Scanning
For Example Going Through An Entire Newspaper And Looking For 
Specific News Related To India Pakistan Cricket Match , When We 
See Cutoff , Property documents, examination question paper, any instructions etc.


is Speed Reading For Overview .To  General Information Going 
Through An Entire Newspaper Quickly Through The Headlines Is An Example 
Of Skimming, Reading Only The Headings Of Chapters Is Skimming.


reading is a specific written pieces for a specific purpose it is 
going into the minutest detail of a particular words ,para, line,etc
For example a poem stanza and it's question answer


reading is a kind of general reading for general information. 
generally this technique is used for pleasure things like reading a novel for 
pleasure one does not mind certain difficulties terms or expressions and goes on 
without stopping for their clarification until they become a hindrance in overall 
understanding for example if one is asked to read a chapter before discussing in 
the class one goes for extensive reading to get a general ideas of the piece

Process of reading

Effective reading involves a proper planning of a reading so that the 
objective of reading are successfully met .First of all a reader must know 
what is purpose of reading specific or general and then accordingly 
choose the appropriate strategy for the same

  • Pre Reading Activities 
  • While Reading Activities  
  • Post Reading Activities


A Person Is A Social Animal And In Order To Live In The Society, He Has To 
Communicate With The People Living In The Society, For His Basic 
Facilities, Information Or Help, He Has To Communicate With Other 
People In The Society
But Sometimes It Happens That Two People Are Not Able To Understand 
One Language And Then Need A Translator Who Works To Understand 
Between Them

Translation Can We Define As 

  • A Communication (Written Or Spoken ) In A Second Language Having The Same Meaning As A 
     Communication In The First Language 
  • The Process Of Changing A Text From One Language To Another
    A Translator Is A Person Trained In The Art And Science Of 
    Understanding Two Or More Languages In Relationship To 
    Each Other And Skilled In The Ability To  Interpret One 
    Language For A Person Audience That Does Not Understand That Language
  • A  Translator Is Bilingual Or Multilingual. He Should 
    Understand Other People Another Culture Another Place And 
    Often Another Time
  • A Translator Must Know The Field In Which He Or She Is 
    Working For Example Translator Of Biological Text Must 
    Understand The Field Of Biology
Some Aspects Of Speech Interpretation

Consecutive Translation

The Speaker Say Something And 
Pause The Interpreter Translates It Into A Different Language 
The Respondent Answer And Pause The Interpreter Translate 
This Response For The Original Speaker And Soon

Simultaneous Translation 

Is Used For Persons Who Are Primarily 
Listeners Rather Than Speakers An Interpreter Listen To A Speaker 
Who Present A Message Without Pause The Interpreter Then 
Translate The Message Into A Second Language While The Speaker Continues On


is a specialized area in which a person needs 
and documents in one language and decides it allowed in another


There Are Two Types Of Translation

  • Literal
  • Semantic / Idiomatic


Literal Translations Are Called Words For Words 
Translations Or More Accurately Formal Equivalence 
Translation. Literal Translation See The Preservation Of The 
Original Words As The Highest Priority Even At The Expense Of 
Clarity And Naturalness. This Approach Focus On The Form Of 
The Original Language Often Presenting More Of A  
Transliteration Of Words Than A Translation Of Meaning.


A Semantic Translation Would Be One Where The 
Translator Tried To Come As Close As Possible To The Meaning 
Conveyed By The Words .Semantic Translations Are Also Called 
Functional Equivalence Translations Often A Semantic 
Translations Can Be More Accurate And Meaningful Than A Literal 
Translation. Semantic Translations Focus On Meaning Of Words 
And  Understanding The Meaning Of Phrase

For Example French Phrase 'J 'Ai Faim' Is 
Literally Meaning In To English ‘I Have 
Hunger’ But A Better Translation Would Be 
‘I Am Hungry’ Adopting The Grammar 
Syntax And Structure Of The Target Text


1  Intralingual - where both the source and the target are the same language

2  Interlingual - where the source and the target are two different language.

3  Itnersemiotic  - where the context of the text is often Changed.

Problem In Translation

According To The Roman Jakobson The Key Problem Of 
Translation Is That Equivalence.  It Is Often Hard To Find The Exact 
Replacement For A Word From One Sign System To Another
There Are Two Kind Of Equivalence

Formal Equivalence

Dynamic Equivalent

Formal Equivalence Where One Keeps The Original Words As It Is And Explains The 
Cultural And Social Significance Elsewhere

Dynamic Equivalence Where One Finds The Closest Possible Equivalent So The Hindi Word 
Sindoor Is Translated As Vermilion

The Process Of Translating From One Language To Another Is Full 
Of Difficulties Here Are Some Issues That Have To Deal With

  • Making Sense
  • Conveying The Spirit And The Manner Of The Original
  • Having A Natural And Easy Form Of Expression
  • Producing A Similar Response