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B.A. FIRST YEAR NATIONALISM IN INDIA UNIT 2 Chapter-  3 SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN THE 19TH CENTURY  NOTES

B.A. FIRST YEAR NATIONALISM IN INDIA UNIT 2 Chapter- 3 SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN THE 19TH CENTURY NOTES



Major Religious And Social Problems Of 19th Century

Caste System And Untouchability

India Is The Largest Democracy In The World. In 21st Century India Is 
Constantly On The Path Of Progress Fighting Against Religious Superstitious 
And Social Evils India Is Divided Into Several Caste And Religion Traditionally 
Indian Society Was Divided Into Four Groups Brahmans Kshatriya Vaishya 
And Shudras. This Varna System Take The Discriminatory In The Society.
Sudras considered as dalit who are at the bottom of the society. Due to the 
caste system untouchability was prevalent in the Indian society it roots lies 
deep into our social and religious system. the untouchables were not allowed 
to touch public think drink water from the water sources of the village or cities 
were not even allowed to visit temple nor were they allowed to marry anyone 
from any other caste group
The Number Of Delete One More Than 20% Of The Entire Hindu Population. 
Untouchables Were The Victim Of Discrimination And Many Other Forms Of Restrictions

SATI PRATHA

Sati Vada Custom In Some Hindu Communities Where Are A Widow Set Into 
The Funeral Fire Along With Her Husband's Body. The Word Is Derived From 
The Goddess Sati Also Known As Dakshayani.
Sati Sacrifice Her Life In The Fire Of Yagya As Her Father Raja Daksha Insulted 
Her Husband Lord Shiva. Raja Ram Mohan Roy Term As The Practice Of Sati As 
A Gross Injustice Done To Women Calling It Shameful For The Entire Hindu Society
The Result Of His Efforts Was That The Government Declared 
The Practice Of Sati A Punishable Offence And Made A Rule To 
Punish Those Who Were Encouraged Or Engaged In Such 
Practices In 1829 By Passing A Law Against The Practice Of Sati 
The Burning Of Widows Alive As Was Stopped First This Was 
Implemented In Bengal And Then In1830 It Was Also Implemented In Madras And Bombay

INFANTICIDE

This Cruel Practice Was Prevalent In North India The Girls 
Were Killed In The Womb And In Their Childhood As They 
Were Often Considered As An Economic Burden In The 
Society Or Due To The Other Reasons Both The Progressive 
Indian And The Britishers Sharply Criticized
This Practice Ultimately Infant Killing Was Currently Is 
Considered As A Crime Equivalent To Simple Murder. 
Infanticide Was Declared An Offence Equivalent To 
Homicide Under 21st Act Of Bengal In 1975 In 1870 
Some More Laws Were Enacted To Stop This Practice

WIDOW REMARRIAGE

This Is An Extremely Prominent Issue For The Brahma Samaj 
To Address And It Has Done Commendable Work To Make It Popular 
But The Most Important Contribution To This Field 
Was That Of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar. He Was The Teacher Of Sanskrit College At Calcutta. 
He Argued Based On Sanskrit And Vedic References That The 
Vedas Allow Widow Remarriage. He Sent An Application 
Containing About 1,000 Signatures To The Government His 
Efforts Eventually Led To The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act In 
1856 According To Which Widow Marriage Was Considered 
Valid And Children Born From Such Marriages Were Declared Valid.

CHILD MARRIAGE

Social Reformers Also Strongly Opposed Child Marriage Which 
Resulted The Native Marriage Act In 1872 Under The Act The 
Marriage Of Below The Age Of 14 Years Old Girl Was 
Forbidden. But This Law Was Not Very Sufficient. The Sharda 
Act Was Passed In 1938 Due To The Relentless Efforts Harvilas Sharda. 
By This Act The Marriage Of A Boy Below 18 Years Of Age And A 
Girl Under 14 Years Of Age Was Declared Illegal. 
After Independence The Government Of India Enacted The 
Prevention Of Child Marriage Act In 1978 By Which The Age Of 
Marriage Of Per Child Was Increased From 18 To 21 Years.  Also 
There Is A Provision Of Punishment Against Those Who Married A Child.

WOMEN EDUCATION

In The 19th Century There Was A Misconception In The Society That 
Hindu Scriptures Do Not Allow Female Education And On Receiving 
Education The God Will Punisher With Legalism 
The First Attempt In This Direction Was Made By Christian Missionaries 
And Established Calcutta Tarun Stree Sabha In 1819
In 1849 The Calcutta Education Council President J E D 
Bethun Founded The Bethun School It Was The First Strong 
Step Initiative Towards Female Education.
But In The Field Of Women Education, IswarChand Vidyasagar 
Contribution Is Great He Was Associated With At Least 35 
Girl's Schools In Bengal And His Work In The Field Of 
Women Education Will Always Be Remembered.
In 1914 The Female Medical Service Did Our Command Able 
Job By Training Women In The Field Of Nursing And Midwifery
Indian Women University Started By Professor D.K. Karve Was 
Considered As A Milestone In The Direction Of Human Education In 1916
In The Same Year Lady Hardinge Medical College Was Established In Delhi.

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Raja Rammohan Roy

Ram Mohan Roy Was A Man Of The Modern Era.
He Struggled For Reform Against Social Evils In The Society 
Tagore Said Ram Mohan Roy Was The Only Person In His Time 
In The Whole World Of Man To Realise Completely The 
Significant Of The Modern Age.
Roy Also Established Religious Society Amitya Sabha The Idea Of 
Nationalism And The Idea Prescribed By The Vedas. Amitya Sabha 
Was Later Called The Brahmo Samajwhich Aimed At Uplifting The 
Dignity Of Human Beings Reforming Social Evils Such As Sati And 
Idolatry. Roy Was Also Opposed The Caste System In Indian 
Society. According To Him it Has Destroyed The Unity Of The Country.

Vivekananda

Vivekananda Main Goal Was To Strength The Youth Of India By 
Removing Both Physical And Mental Weakness 
For Them Strength Is Life And Weakness Is Death 
Vivekananda Was Against Religious Orthodox And Superstitious. 
His Speech And Lectures Use To Argue Vigorously Against Social Evils.
In 1893 Swami Vivekananda At The World Religious 
Conference In Chicago Broadcast The Real Culture 
And Philosophy Of India To The World 
His Lecture And Speeches Proved That Hinduism Is No Less Than Anyone

Dayanand Saraswati

Swami Dayanand Saraswati founded the Arya samaj in 1875.
Their main goal was to proper get and reform Hindu 
religion and to re-establish Vedic religion in true forms.
Dayanand Saraswati Believed In The Teaching Of The Vedas And 
Gave A Slogan “Vedon Ki Aur Loto”
Due To This Spread Of Idolatry And Other Superstitious They Have 
Opposed The Worship Of Hinduism. He Was Very Aggressively Opposed
To All Social Evils Like Caste System Child Marriage Widow Marriage 
Women Education Inter Caste Marriage Untouchability Etc

Jyotiba Phule

His First And Most Important Work Was For The Education Of
Women And His First Follower Was His Wife . In 1848
Jyotiba Opened A School For Girls To Create a Equal
Society For Their Fantasize And Aspiration. It Was The First Girls School In The Country.
His Wife Savitribai Used To Work There As A Teacher. Jyotiba Phule
Was Against Child Marriage As Well As A Supporter Of Widow Remarriage
He Was The First Person Who Gave The Untouchables The Name Dalit.
He Raised The Satyashodhak Samaj On 24 September 1873 To Uplift The
Lower Caste Is And Untouchables.

DR. BHIMRAV AMBEDKAR

Dr Ambedkar's Main Objective Was To Fight For The Rights Of 
The Lower Castes And The Untouchables And Root Out This Evil From The Society.
Under The Section 1919 Of The Government Of India At That 
Time Ambedkar Demanded Separate Election For The Lower 
Castes And Untouchables. 
He Also Demanded Reservation For Such Communities. 
To Generate Socio Political Awareness Among The Untouchables On 20 July 
1924 The Bahishkrit Hitkarni Sabha Was Established In Bombay.
The Constitution Of India In 1950 Give The Benefits Of Reservation To 
Scheduled Castes And Scheduled Tribes. Dr Ambedkar Biggest Contribution 
In The Making Of Modern India He Was The Chairman Of Of The Drafting Committee.

Mahatma Gandhi

Gandhi Was Determined To Eradicate Untouchability From Society. 
His Ideas Were Based On Humanism And Logic. In 1932 He 
Founded The All India Harijan Association. 
Gandhi Was A Strong Opponent Of Big Industry And Mechanization 
He Believed That The System Of Industrialism Is The Name Of A 
System Based On The Exploitation Of Man By Man .
Gandhi Talk About Setting Up A Small Scale Industries Handicrafts 
Handloom Industries And All Such Other Industries Related To 
Workers Which Can Provide A Maximum Number Of People.

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